What we know about the "Saman-1" kick-stage for the Simorgh IRILV

Norbert Brügge, Germany

Update: 18.02.2023

As far as we know, the Saman-1 has so far been used three times without success on the Simorgh as a kick stage for the insertion of satellites into an earth orbit. In two cases (2017 and 2019) we have to assume malfunctions.
The Saman-1 was presented for the first time at an exhibition in early February 2017 as an unfinished model. Already at the end of July of the same year, the Saman-1 was taken over for the Simorgh, as we know, without success.
The heart of the kick-stage is a spherical solid-fuel motor of unknown type, which was presented together with the model Saman-1 in 2017. It could be an early problematic motor from the Arash series that was responsible for the failures.

Saman-1 presentation model


Saman-1 flight model

The flight model differs significantly from the presentation model. Fundamental changes cannot be overlooked.



Saman-1 (2020)

It is planned to replace the problematic solid-fuel motor by the Arash-24 motor in order to increase the reliability of the Saman-1. Vacuum function tests of such a motor that were previously lacking were started in 2019.

TEHRAN, 2020, Jan. 18 -- Head of Iran's Space Research Center says the new achievement includes the design and development of various versions of  “Arash space engine” the first sample of which was tested successfully late 2019.
Arash space engine will be put in the orbital transfer system to help thrust satellites from the low orbit into the high orbit. The satellite's orbital transmission system increases the orbital range of the satellite and directs it to a height of 400 kilometers above the earth's surface. From there, it will be possible to navigate the satellite up to an orbit of 700 kilometers from the earth using space engines.

TEHRAN, 2019, Dec.17 -- President of Iran's Space Research Center Hossein Samimi announced that the first sample of its Arash-24 space motor was tested successfully in vacuum conditions.



Functional test of Saman-1

Vacuum test arrangement

Test diagram

Calculated performance
13 kN (av.)
Isp 286.5 sec
Burn time 40 sec
Flow rate 4.625 kg/sec




  Some details of an other solid-fuel motor  "Arash-22" etc.

Comparison of Arash-22 and Saman-1 "Arash.24" motor

"Arash-22" solid fuel motor


For comparison: A North Korean kick motor