An overlook to China's new generation of Rocket Engines


A new generation of engines has been and is being developed for China's new generation of launch vehicles CZ-5 to CZ-9 and CZ-FH. This includes both engines  that work with Kerosene/LOX and cryogenic engines that work with LH2/LOX. There are also efforts to develop methane/LOX engines.

Combustors

 

CZ-5

CZ-6

CZ-7 & CZ-7A

CZ-8

CZ-FH

CZ-9

Stages------>

B. 1. 2. - - 1. 2. - B 1. 2.

3.

B. 1. 2. - B. 1. 2. 3. B. 1. 2. 3.

YF-100 /-100F

Kerosenee/LOX 2x    

 -

 

1x

     1x

2x

   

 1x

2x

 

-

               

YF-100K

        -                       7x 7x            

YF-100M

                           

 

     

2x

         

YF-115

         

1x

       

4x

     

 

 

               

YF-130 (2)

                                        2x 4x    

YF-75

LH2/LOX                      

(2x)

   

2x

                 

YF-75D

   

(2x)

-

                             

3x

     

 

YF-77

 

 4x

                                   

 

 

 

 

YF-79

                                             

4x

YF-90

                                           

 2x

 

 

1.) Kerosene/LOX rocket engines

The first engine YF-100 is the starting point for subsequent variants in this category. They all work in the "staged combustion cycle" wth preburners. The YF-100 engine is based on the Energomash RD-120 engine.

 YF-100 & YF-100F
 YF-100 is currently used for booster and first stage of CZ-5, CZ-7 and CZ-8. The YF-100F engine will be a forced variant. A special version (YF-100GBI) is used for the first stage of the CZ-6.
 

 Performance:

Thrust s.l. (kN) Thrust vac (kN) Isp  s.l. (sec) Isp vac (sec) Kerosene/LOX mix Flow rate (kg/sec) Chamber press. (MPa Nozzle area ratio
 YF-100 1,188.6 1,329.1 300 335.5 1:2.6 404.0 17.7 48.3
 YF-100F 1,223.5 1,368.3 302 337.5 415,9 18


         
 


              
 

 YF-100K
 YF-100K is a changed variant of the YF-100F and is intended for booster and first stage of the CZ-FH.
 
 Performance: Thrust s.l. (kN) Thrust vac (kN) Isp  s.l. (sec) Isp  vac (sec) Kerosene/LOX mix Flow rate (kg/sec) Chamber press. (MPa) Nozzle area ratio
 YF-100K 1,231.7 1,376.5 302 337.5 1:2.6 415.9 18 35


       
                      
 

 YF-100M
 
YF-100M is the vacuum version of the YF-100K with an extended nozzle. It is intended as pair for the second stage of the CZ-FH.
 :
 Performance: Thrust s.l. (kN) Thrust vac (kN) Isp  s.i. (sec) Isp  vac (sec) Kerosene/LOX mix Flow rate (kg/sec) Chamber press. (MPa) Nozzle area ratio
 YF-100M - 1,386.8 - 340 1:2.6 415.9 18 90



 

 
 YF-130
 YF-130 is a new powerful twin-chamber engine with a total thrust of 480 t and is currently to be used for boosters and the first stage of the CZ-9. This engine is similar to the Energomash RD-180.
 
 Performance: Thrust s.l. (kN) Thrust vac (kN) Isp  s.l. (sec Isp  vac (sec Kerosene/LOX mix Flow rate (kg/sec) Chamber press. (MPa) Nozzle area ratio
 YF-130 (2) ~4,243 ~4,707 306 ~339.5 ? 1,414 ? ?


      
 


  
 

 YF-115
 
YF-115 is a new single-chamber engine for the second stages of the CZ-6, CZ-7 and CZ-7A. It works in the "staged combustion cycle" and is usually bundled fourfold.
 
 Performance: Thrust s.l. (kN) Thrust vac (kN) Isp  s.l. (sec) Isp  vac (sec) Kerosene/LOX mix) Flow rate (kg/sec) Chamber press. (MPa) Nozzle area ratio
 YF-115 - 182.4 - 341.5 1:2.5 54.45 12 88


                     
 

 Commercial developments
 

 
  
Galactic Energy "Welkin"


  
APT



AAEngine  "AY-1A"

 
 Performance: Thrust s.l. (kN) Thrust vac (kN) Isp  s.l. (sec) Isp  vac (sec) Kerosene/LOX mix) Flow rate (kg/sec) Chamber press. (MPa) Nozzle area ratio
 "Welkin" 400 500  ? ? ?      
 APT 200 250 ? >324 ?   >10  
 AY-1A 200 250 ? ? ?      


2.) Cryogenic rocket engines

All variants are self-developed engines. The forerunner was the small YF-73 engine, which was used fourfold for the upper stage of the retired CZ-3. The most powerful so far is the YF-77 engine for the first stage of the CZ-5.

 YF-77
 
YF-77 is a new development for the LH2/LOX fueled first stage of the CZ-5. The engine works in an "open gas generator cycle".
 
 Performance: Thrust s.l. (kN) Thrust vac (kN) Isp  s.l. (sec) Isp  vac (sec) LH2/LOX mix Flow rate (kg/sec) Chamber press. (MPa) Nozzle area ratio
 YF-77 510 700 311.9 428.1 5.5 166.7 10.2 80


        
  

 YF-75
 
YF-75 is the second cryogenic single-chamber engine developed in China after YF-73. It works in an "open gas generator cycle" and is currently used in pairs for the CZ-3A, B, C, but also for
  the upper stages of the CZ -7A and CZ-8.
 
 Performance: Thrust s.l. (kN) Thrust vac (kN Isp  s.l. (sec) Isp  vac (sec) LH2/LOX mix Flow rate (kg/sec) Chamber press. (MPa) Nozzle area ratio
 YF-75 - 78.45 - 438 1:5.1 18.25 3.76 80


     
 

 YF-75D
 
YF-75D is a further development of YF-75, but works in a "closed expander cycle". It is used in in the upper stages of the CZ-5 (2x) and CZ-FH (3x).
 
 Performance: Thrust s.l. (kN) Thrust vac (kN) Isp  s.l. (sec) Isp  vac (sec) LH2/LOX mix Flow rate (kg/sec) Chamber press. (MPa) Nozzle area ratio
 YF-75D - 88.36 - 442.6 1:6.0 20.41 4.10 80


    
 

 YF-90
 
The powerful YF-90 is under development and will be paired for the second stage of the CZ-9. It works in the "staged combustion cycle".
 
 Performance: Thrust s.l. (kN) Thrust vac (kN) Isp  s.l. (sec) Isp  vac (sec) LH2/LOX mix Flow rate (kg/sec) Chamber press. (MPa) Nozzle area ratio
 YF-90 - 2,206.5 - 462.7 ? 486.3 ? ?



 

 YF 79
 YF-79 is more powerful than the YF-75D and is intended to be used fourfold in the third stage of the CZ-9.
 
 Performance: Thrust s.l. (kN) Thrust vac (kN) Isp  s.l. (sec) Isp  vac (sec) LH2/LOX mix Flow rate (kg/sec) Chamber press. (MPa) Nozzle area ratio
 YF-79 -  243.2 - 460 ? 53.9 ? ?


 

 YF-120
 The YF-120 engine is still unknown. It is to be used for two upper stages of a future and newly designed CZ-9 (SHLV)


3.) Methane rocket engines

China's first methane/LOX rocket engine was developed based on LH2/LOX technologies (YF-77). This 60 t methane/LOX engine was tested successfully. China also developing a  200 t methane/LOX rocket engine, which will be used as main power units for the space transportation system, capable of reuse for more than 50 times. In parallel. Chinese commercial space companies have focused on methane/LOX engines as well, with about 80 t and 10 t methane/LOX engines have passing hot tests.

 

    
The 200 t metalox engine
 

 YF-135
 
This engine is still unknown. According a poster it have a thrust of around 330 t and will be used 16x in the first stage of a future and newly designed CZ-9 (SHLV).


    
Model of a 660 and 330 t rocket engine


The companies LinkSpace, Interspace and Landspace are developing their own methane/LOX engines for their planned launch vehicles.
 

 Performance: Thrust s.l. (kN) Thrust vac (kN) Isp  s.l. (sec) Isp  vac  (sec) Methane/LOX mix Flow rate (kg/sec) Chamber press. (MPa) Nozzle area ratio
 JZYJ 15t 100 150 280 325  ?      
 JZYJ 80t 750 850 ? ?  ?      
 TQ-12 659.0 777.6 283 334 ? 237.5 10.1 45
 JD-1 150 200 ? ? ? ?    
 JD-2 686.5 770.2  291.2 326.6 ? 240.5    
 LY-10 100 120 274.9 325 ?      

 


JZYJ 15 t

JZYJY 80 t

LinkSpace LY-10

i-space JD-1

Landspace TQ-12